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Handbook of Listeria Monocytogenes
Close Preview. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents Editor s Bio. Summary Once feared as a deadly intracellular bacterium with the extraordinary capacity to survive a wide array of arduous external stressors, Listeria monocytogenes is increasingly recognized as a preferred vector for delivering anti-infective and anti-cancer vaccine molecules.
Handbook of Listeria monocytogenes 
A reliable, single-source reference on the fundamental aspects of this bacterium is crucial to support future study and further the advancement of biomedical sciences and intervention strategies. Drawn from an international panel of scientists with notable expertise in their respective fields, the Handbook of Listeria monocytogenes is divided into four sections: Section I discusses the biology and pathogenicity of this bacterium, including epidemiology and stress responses.
Section II demonstrates identification and detection techniques such as phenotypic and genotypic identification, strain typing, and virulence determination. Section III details the current knowledge of genetic manipulation of Listeria , including comparative genomics, genomic divisions, epidemic clones and population structure, and analysis of cell envelope proteins. Section IV covers innate and adaptive immunity against Listeria , and examines the use of this bacterium for anti-infective and anti-cancer vaccine development. The first comprehensive compilation of knowledge in this area, this handbook is an indispensable reference for anyone embarking on the path of manipulation of Listeria as either a model for the study of the host-bacterium relationship or as a tool for delivering protective molecules to cytoplasm.
Table of Contents Biology and Pathogenicity. Identification and Detection. Genomics and Proteomics. Immunity and Vaccines. Request an e-inspection copy. ALOA medium distinguishes Listeria spp. The details of primers are presented in Table 2. The pathogenicity of the test isolates as well as the reference strains of L.
The isolates causing mortality to embryo after 24 h of inoculation up till 5 days were considered to be pathogenic. The commercial antibiotic discs HiMedia, India , namely ampicillin 10 mcg , gentamicin 10 mcg , enrofloxacin 10 mcg , doxycyclin 10 mcg , co-trimoxazole 25 mcg and oxytetracyclin 30 mcg were tested against all the L.
The antimicrobials were selected based on the information obtained from practicing clinicians and veterinarians.
The multiplex serotyping PCR assay was performed for serogrouping of the L. The details of the isolates and their serogroup identification are presented in Table 1. Overall, irrespective of place and source of isolation of L. Furthermore, on analysis of the serotyping results based on the source and place of isolation, we observed that most of the L. Unlike humans, in animals, although the predominance of serogroup 4b, 4d, 4e was observed, however, their place of isolation was different.
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Similar observations were also noticed for L. PFGE discrimination was also evident between different serogroup, as most of the test isolates belonging to the same serogroup were grouped together, irrespective of their place of isolation Fig. PFGE profiles of L. In cluster A, isolate H09, isolated from human was found to be identical to isolate A04 isolated from bovine, and both these isolates were isolated from the same region, although their year of isolation was different. Besides this, the isolate A01 isolated from ovine abortion case from different geographical region clustered together.
Moreover, all the test isolates of the clusters A and B belonged to similar serogroup. Furthermore, 10 L. Thus, the above observations suggested a possible epidemiological association between human and animal populations cluster A and B ; wherein foods derived from the animal origin and animal population play a significant role in either direct or indirect spread of listeriosis among human populations in the Indian sub-continent. Variable haemolytic titers were observed among the test isolates Table 1. Of the 36 L.
On screening 36 L. A diverse and a varied profile were observed in most of the test isolates with regard to amplification of targeted virulence associated genes. The results of chick embryo inoculation test are presented in Table 1. The isolates recovered from humans 7 and animals 7 killed the chick embryo within day 3 post infection; while, the isolates recovered from food 6 killed the chick embryo on day 4 post infection.
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Furthermore, on comparing the pathogenic profiles of test isolates with PFGE and multiplex serotyping PCR, it was interesting to observe that majority of pathogenic L. Of the 36 isolates studied, 35 Only one animal isolate A03 was found resistant to co-trimoxazole. Globally, genetic characterization of L. In India, listeriosis is not a notifiable disease Barbuddhe et al. Moreover, the epidemiological data on listeriosis are not adequate in India to assess the extent of infection in human beings and animals.
Therefore, in the present study, 36 L. In the present study, irrespective of the source of isolation, serogroup 4b, 4d, 4e was found to be predominant in different geographical regions of India. Thus, based on the proposed information, the predominance of serotype 4b in humans and animal clinical cases and foods of animal origin is of public health concern as L. However, in order to have better epidemiological understanding among the isolates, all the isolates were characterized for their genetic diversity using PFGE.
This technique has been extensively used to type and compare L. Also, because of its high discriminatory power and reproducibility, PFGE has proved its significance as one of the most useful and gold standard subtyping method for L. In the present study, PFGE characterization using both the enzymes, revealed 17 pulsotypes which distributed 36 L. The isolates belonging to the same serogroup were grouped together, irrespective of their place of isolation.
Similar results were also reported by several researchers wherein L. Furthermore, in the present study, the isolates from clusters A and B belonging to the similar serogroup revealing indistinguishable PFGE profile probably suggest a possible epidemiological association between human and animal strains. Similar findings have been reported by earlier studies, wherein indistinguishable PFGE types have been observed among L.
Besides this, isolates recovered from human clinical cases revealed indistinguishable PFGE types in clusters D and E, which considered about their endemicity within the human population. Long-term persistence of L. Also persistence of this pathogen has been demonstrated in retail environments and such persisting L. Such strains in particular may be responsible for causing infections in humans and animals, and such animals and their associated environmental surroundings could serve as a probable source of infection to human beings.
Similar perceptions have also been reported by Fox et al.
Besides this, preliminary evidence has also been cited, wherein food animals could serve as significant reservoirs of L. Also different subtypes of L. Such diversion in pathogenicity depends on the genetic constituents. Therefore, to assess the virulence potential of the isolates recovered from humans, animals and food, all the 36 L. Overall, in the present study, a good correlation was observed between the haemolytic titer assay and the chick embryo inoculation test as most of the L.
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The strains were shown to be positive for the hly A gene, but were found to be defective for prf A gene in some cases. In the present study, we had not determined the sequence of the prf A gene and related regions on the chromosome, therefore, its absence in PCR might be because of the defect or mutation of the region Rawool et al.
The lack of correlation in case of mPCR might also be due to mutation at primer binding sites wherein the primers might have failed to amplify or detect virulence-associated genes. Furthermore, on comparing the pathogenic profile of test isolates with PFGE and multiplex serotyping PCR, it was interesting to observe that majority of L.
The virulence level of L. In recent past, a number of strains have been reported to be resistant to one or more antibiotics used for the treatment of listeriosis. The outcome of listeriosis depends on the early administration of antibiotics for better bactericidal activity against L. In general, the reference treatment includes synergistic association of high doses of aminopenicillin ampicillin or amoxicillin and gentamicin Hof In the present study, six antibiotics, namely ampicillin, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, doxycyclin, co-trimoxazole and oxytetracycline were tested against all the L.
The mechanism of action of co-trimoxazole drug is similar to that of trimethoprim, and this drug is often recommended as a therapeutic alternative in case of first-lines treatment failure or intolerance to beta-lactams Hof Earlier report had demonstrated that the L.
In conclusion, the PFGE analysis revealed a close genetic relatedness and a possible epidemiological association among L. Also the endemic nature of serovar 4b in the Indian sub-continent, particularly in foods of animal origin is of concern as serovar 4b in particular has been widely reported in several serious foodborne outbreaks of listeriosis in human populations. Furthermore, on assessing the virulence potential, most of the isolates from humans, followed by isolates from animals and from food were found to be pathogenic to the chick embryo. However, on comparison of in vitro pathogenicity tests with that of in vivo chick embryo inoculation test, an overall good correlation was observed between the haemolytic titer assay and the chick embryo inoculation test.
Further comprehensive studies are required to draw the conclusions. The authors thank Director, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar for providing necessary facilities to undertake the research.
This work was supported by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India [research grant no. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.