Jobs was a board member at Gap Inc. In , Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7. As a result, Jobs potentially faced a number of criminal charges and civil penalties. The case was the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations,  though an independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29, found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returned without being exercised in In , Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling programs for e-waste in the US by lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apple's annual meeting in Cupertino in April.
A few weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker. The banner read "Steve, don't be a mini-player—recycle all e-waste.
In , he further expanded Apple's recycling programs to any US customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shipping and "environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems. Jobs was perceived as a demanding perfectionist   who always aspired to position his businesses and their products at the forefront of the information technology industry by foreseeing and setting innovation and style trends.
He summed up this self-concept at the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January , by quoting ice hockey player Wayne Gretzky :.
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There's an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. Since the very, very beginning. And we always will. In a interview with biographer Walter Isaacson, Jobs revealed that he had met with US President Barack Obama , complained about the nation's shortage of software engineers, and told Obama that he was "headed for a one-term presidency". After the meeting, Jobs commented, "The president is very smart, but he kept explaining to us reasons why things can't get done. It infuriates me. In October , Jobs was diagnosed with cancer.
In mid, he announced to his employees that he had a cancerous tumor in his pancreas. Despite his diagnosis, Jobs resisted his doctors' recommendations for medical intervention for nine months,  instead relying on alternative medicine to thwart the disease. According to Harvard researcher Ramzi Amri, his choice of alternative treatment "led to an unnecessarily early death".
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Other doctors agree that Jobs's diet was insufficient to address his disease. However, cancer researcher and alternative medicine critic David Gorski wrote that "it's impossible to know whether and by how much he might have decreased his chances of surviving his cancer through his flirtation with woo. My best guess was that Jobs probably only modestly decreased his chances of survival, if that. Cassileth , the chief of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 's integrative medicine department,  said, "Jobs's faith in alternative medicine likely cost him his life He had the only kind of pancreatic cancer that is treatable and curable He essentially committed suicide.
He was also influenced by a doctor who ran a clinic that advised juice fasts, bowel cleansings and other unproven approaches, before finally having surgery in July He hoped to live to see his son Reed's high school graduation in His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery,   together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry of media and Internet speculation about the state of his health.
Others said that shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs's hands-on approach to running his company. On August 28, , Bloomberg mistakenly published a word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's death. Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it,  intensifying rumors concerning Jobs's health.
On December 16, , Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company's final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo , again reviving questions about Jobs's health. On January 14, , Jobs wrote in an internal Apple memo that in the previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought". In , Tim Cook offered a portion of his liver to Jobs, since both share a rare blood type and the donor liver can regenerate tissue after such an operation.
Jobs yelled, "I'll never let you do that. I'll never do that. On January 17, , a year and a half after Jobs returned to work following the liver transplant, Apple announced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence.
Jobs announced his leave in a letter to employees, stating his decision was made "so he could focus on his health". As it did at the time of his medical leave, Apple announced that Tim Cook would run day-to-day operations and that Jobs would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company. On August 24, , Jobs announced his resignation as Apple's CEO, writing to the board, "I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple's CEO, I would be the first to let you know.
Unfortunately, that day has come. PDT on October 5, , due to complications from a relapse of his previously treated islet-cell pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor ,    which resulted in respiratory arrest.
Before embarking, he'd looked at his sister Patty, then for a long time at his children, then at his life's partner, Laurene, and then over their shoulders past them. Steve's final words were: 'Oh wow. Oh wow. Apple  and Pixar each issued announcements of his death. Bob Iger ordered all Disney properties, including Walt Disney World and Disneyland , to fly their flags at half-staff from October 6 to 12, A video of the service was uploaded to Apple's website.
Those in attendance included Apple and other tech company executives, members of the media, celebrities, close friends of Jobs, and politicians, along with Jobs's family.
The service was highly secured, with guards at all of the university's gates, and a helicopter flying overhead from an area news station. The box contained a copy of the Autobiography of a Yogi by Paramahansa Yogananda.
Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak ,  former owner of what would become Pixar , George Lucas ,  former rival, Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates ,  and President Barack Obama  all offered statements in response to his death. Lisa Brennan-Jobs , Jobs's eldest daughter, described Jobs in her memoir as sexually inappropriate and described patterns of cruel behavior by him during her adolescent years.
Jobs's design aesthetic was influenced by philosophies of Zen and Buddhism. In India, he experienced Buddhism while on his seven-month spiritual journey,  and his sense of intuition was influenced by the spiritual people with whom he studied. According to Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, "Steve didn't ever code. He wasn't an engineer and he didn't do any original design Steve Jobs was the marketing person. He is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in United States patents or patent applications related to a range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user interfaces including touch-based , speakers, keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages.
Jobs's contributions to most of his patents were to "the look and feel of the product". His industrial design chief Jonathan Ive had his name along with him for of the patents. Involved in many projects throughout his career was his long-time marketing executive and confidant Joanna Hoffman , known as one of the few employees at Apple and NeXT who could successfully stand up to Jobs while also engaging with him.
Even while terminally ill in the hospital, Jobs sketched new devices that would hold the iPad in a hospital bed. Since his death, the former Apple CEO has won patents, more than most inventors win during their lifetimes. Currently, Jobs holds over patents. The Lisa is a personal computer designed by Apple during the early s.
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It was the first personal computer to offer a graphical user interface in a machine aimed at individual business users. Development of the Lisa began in In , after Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project,  he joined the Macintosh project. The Macintosh is not a direct descendant of Lisa, although there are obvious similarities between the systems.
Once he joined the original Macintosh team, Jobs took over the project after Wozniak had experienced a traumatic airplane accident and temporarily left the company. This was the first mass-market personal computer featuring an integral graphical user interface and mouse. Since , Apple has largely phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", though the product family has been nicknamed "Mac" or "the Mac" since the development of the first model.
The ad alludes to George Orwell 's novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four , which describes a dystopian future ruled by a televised " Big Brother. The Macintosh, however, was expensive, which hindered its ability to be competitive in a market already dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses.